The axis is more similar to the rest of the cervical spine vertebrae than the atlas however it does have an incredibly distinctive characteristic; the dens, or odontoid course of. Typically characterized as tooth-like or peg-like, this process is bigger and longer than most different anatomical processes and extends from the body of C2. The dens and the spinal cord are encircled by the atlas. The dens makes an articulation with the posterior floor of the anterior arch of the atlas (the median atlantoaxial joint) and is held in place by the transverse ligament. The dens, and its articulation with the atlas, acts as a pivot round which rotation of the pinnacle can occur. The transverse ligament runs posterior to the dens (and anterior to the spinal cord), forming the posterior wall of the joint
At instances, patients could downplay the severity of the motorcar accident or trauma. These situations might sway the clinician away from ordering cervical x-rays and imaging studies, that are crucial in the analysis of cervical injuries. It is crucial for the clinician to conduct a thorough historical past and clinical examination (particularly inspection and palpation of the spine) prior to formulating a prognosis so as to not misdiagnose this condition. Any affected person involved in a extreme accident or trauma, particularly these patients with neck ache, must be carefully evaluated with x-rays (and extra imaging research if needed) to accurately diagnose a cervical harm.
The coccyx, 首 整体 essentially the most inferior portion of the spine, is approximately the size of the fifth finger. In lay phrases, it is known as the tailbone. The coccyx normally consists of 4 small vertebral segments, but it’s not unusual for there to be three or 5 segments. The coccygeal segments tend to fuse in the adult. Two small bony projections prolong superiorly from the posterior side on each side of the primary coccygeal phase. These are called the coccygeal cornua (singular cornu, which suggests “horn”). They’re joined to similar projections from the posterior inferior side of the sacrum, called the sacral cornua.
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